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The Cymbidium

1- General characteristics

The Cymbidiums are a large family of orchids that are highly appreciated by their shape, color, length and, in some cases, fragrance.
It is a perennial plant and epiphyte leaf, although in their natural habitat can also be terrestrial. Its development is sympodial, ie, the plant develops from a series of pseudobulbs that grow horizontally expanding and forming a new shoot each year from a short rhizome. Of pseudobulbs born two types of stems: those that give rise to a new pseudobulb and forming a flower stem.

Cymbidium pseudobulbs and leaves:

Detail of Cymbidium flowers:

It is affirmed that the Cymbidium orchids are the most cultivated because of their easy cultivation and the large number of hybrids that have been created. Indeed, they were the first orchids commercialized as indoor plant.

There are two large groups of Cymbidiums: the so-called normal orchid that can reach a diameter greater than one meter because of its vitality (if conditions are favorable) and miniature orchids obtained from certain hybrids. The last ones are more resistant, compact and they are not so demanding regarding the lighting conditions or flowering.

The flowers of these orchids are the longest of all the family and their color can combine colors: green, yellow, red, pink, brown and white. Their flowering is very peculiar because if they are cut from the plant, the floral rods can last 10 or more weeks. If you cut them their life is also much longer than any other flower.

Another curious aspect of their flowering is that, unlike what happens with most orchids, can occur in winter. In fact, their flowering period extends from September to January and occurs only once a year.
The Cymbidium can live about 3 to 7 years at home if you have the right conditions.

Cymbidium flowers:

The ideal temperature for these plants in summer is about 25 º C and can tolerate up to 30 ° C. Remember that the higher the temperature, the more moisture and ventilation the plant needs. They do not tolerate direct sunlight if the temperature is high (28 ° C. or more).

In autumn, to stimulate the emergence of floral stem, it is appropriate there is a temperature difference of 10 º C. between day and night. So overnight temperatures range between 10 and 15 ° C. daytime and 20 at 25 °. During flowering it is recommended a temperature as constant as possible around 20 º C.

If we have adequate temperature and humidity conditions, temporarily,Cymbidium can be placed outdoors. Thank usually a well ventilated situation but we must avoid frost or extreme temperatures.
The Cymbidium need lots of light, even direct sunlight in winter so we must find a suitable location. They are not so demanding on the level of humidity. They can live relatively well with a 50% moisture provided that the temperature is not high. In this case you have to spraying on the leaves.
Watering must be abundant during periods of increased heat (spring-summer), ensuring that the soil never be totally dry but at the same time avoid puddles.

The fertilizer shall also apply in the periods of growth and flowering. Apply only specific fertilizers for orchids that are usually less concentrated.

Cymbidium:

2- Table of basic needs:

Conditions: Information: Observation:
Temperature In the summer between 23 and 30 º C. In autumn to begin to form the floral rods, the ideal temperature is between 10 and 15 ° C. So cool nights is a good ally to stimulate flowering. Although they can withstand light frost is not advisable to subject them to that risk.
Humidity They are not demanding about it but it is necessary to ensure at least a minimum humidity of 50%. As the temperature increases we also increase the humidity. If temperatures are over 28 º C. is suitable up to 70-80% moisture.
Light They need lots of light. They tolerate some direct sun out of the central hours of more radiation. If the temperature is very high (> 28 ° C) it is recommended to avoid direct sunlight.
Fertilizer Add fertilizer (twice a month) in spring and summer. It is also appropriate to make foliar fertilizer sprays during the growing season and flowering. Do not wet the flowers.
Substrate As with all orchids, they need a substrate with good drainage and that that does not cause puddles or compaction. The base is usually pine or fir bark and moss. It can also be added peat, coconut fiber, polyurethane foam or expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) to increase aeration and drainage conditions.
Other The plant can reproduce by division of the bush and separating several pseudobulbs of the mother plant. Cut the damaged roots and plant in a pot (14-16 cm.) with new substrate.  

Flowers can combine the red, yellow, white, pink..

See other species of orchids:

Cattleya Cymbidium Dendrobium
Epidendrum Miltonia Oncidium
Paphiopedilum Phalaenopsis Vanda
Cambria 1 Cambria 2 Cambria 3

More information about the care of orchids:

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